By M. Levendowsky (Eds.)
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Extra info for Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa
A quite distinctive type of chloroplast is found in Glenodinium foliaceum (Dodge, 1975b; Jeffrey and Vesk, 1976) and P. balticum (Tomas and Cox, 1973). Here there is a distinct girdle lamella, there are connections between adjacent lamellae, and an internal pyrenoid is present. These two species contain the carotenoid pigment fucoxanthin and have a supernumerary nucleus in addition to the typical mesokaryotic type. As the chloroplasts and extra nucleus appear to be completely enclosed by a single-membrane envelope, it has been suggested that they represent a symbiont from the Chrysophyceae (Tomas and Cox, 1973).
As in members of the Chrysophyta, the envelope consists of four membranes, two belonging to the chloroplast and two being derived from the cell endoplasmic reticulum system. Uniquely, there is a substantial space or compartment between the two sets of membranes. Here, starch grains of the food reserve are located on the inner side of the plastids and, more interestingly, adjacent to each chloroplast there is a granular nucleuslike structure which has been termed the cryptonucleus (Greenwood, 1974) or nucleomorph (Figure 5).
The types of appendages fall into the following categories: (1) stiff tubular hairs (mastigonemes) usually having fine appendages at the tips and may have easily lost fibrous lateral appendages (Bouck, 1971), usually found in two lateral rows (Chrysophyceae and Chloromonadophyceae) but in only one row on one flagellum of some cryptophytes; (2) fine hairs which may be long and form a single row (Dinophyceae and Euglenophyceae) (Figure 6), or may be in two rows as on the dinophycean longitudinal flagellum, or may be very sparse as in Chlamydomonas and on the posterior flagellum of Ochromonas; (3) brittle hairs which are easily detached, as in the Prasinophyceae (Figure 7) and possibly in the supposed chrysophyte Pedinella\ (4) scales, which were initially associated almost exclusively with the very scaly flagella in the Prasinophyceae but more recently have been demonstrated on the flagella oiSynura (Chrysophyceae) (Hibberd, 1973), Oxyrrhis (Dinophyceae) (Clarke and Pennick, 1972), and spermatozoids of a number of green algae such as Coleochaetae and Chara (Moestrup, 1970).
Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa by M. Levendowsky (Eds.)