By Koichi Hagimoto
In 1898, either Cuba and the Philippines completed their independence from Spain after which instantly turned ambitions people expansionism. This booklet offers a comparative research of late-nineteenth-century literature and heritage in Cuba and the Philippines, concentrating on the writings of José Martí and José Rizal to bare shared anti-imperial struggles.
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Additional resources for Between Empires: Martí, Rizal, and the Intercolonial Alliance
Instead, people recognize in her “a strong spirit” that is virtually absent in the country. , señora, es V. ”) (my emphasis, 238). This possibility in Doña Victorina suggests an alternative entry into the narrative of nineteenth-century Latin American novels. Rather than celebrating Sommer’s model of national romance, Noli me tangere creates a different paradigm of allegory: Doña Victorina’s identity symbolizes a move toward national disarticulation. The failure of her romantic relationship is what deﬁnes the condition of anti-imperialism, because it is through her confrontation with the Spanish husband that the possibility of resistance emerges.
Though the presentation of a national impetus is one of Rizal’s central concerns, interpretation should not be limited to this framework. It is important to recognize that Sommer’s invocation of “national romance” does not work for Rizal, since the Noli rejects any model of love affair as a metaphor for national unity. The central romance between Ibarra and María Clara is doomed to fail, and neither can the struggles of other characters achieve productive love relationships. From the perspective of “foundational ﬁction,” then, Rizal’s novel lacks the allegory of national conciliation.
In the same way, John Schumacher perceives in the Noli a “charter of nationalism for Filipinos,” which functions as a catalyst of a revolutionary movement (1991, 91–101). According to his view, Rizal’s text articulates a “new direction in Filipino art and literature in relation to nationalism” (122). The novel’s national space also becomes apparent in the frequent use of regional slang and idiomatic expressions. ” He argues that the novel shows “a hypnotic conﬁrmation of the solidity of a single community embracing characters, authors and readers” (1983, 27).
Between Empires: Martí, Rizal, and the Intercolonial Alliance by Koichi Hagimoto