By Allan W. M. Bonnick
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The ﬁxed eye was on the same side as the ﬁxed point of transmission and steering system, typically behind the front axle and in front of the rear axle. The suspension architecture could assume many diﬀerent variants, according to objectives of comfort, cost and weight of the unsprung mass. Leaf springs have been named after their shape, with reference to the ideal elliptical shape, made of two mirror like leaf springs; with reference to Fig. 5 front springs are called elliptical, while rear springs are called semi elliptical.
15. Two versions of independent front suspensions designed by Dubonnet and produced by Fiat, beginning in 1935. The suspension includes a bearing sealed cartridge, integrating the elastic element and the shock absorber. the far right of Fig. 15; spring and damper work on a ﬁnger crossing through the cartridge. This ﬁnger is connected to one of the arms of a double wishbone mechanism. The cartridge can be integrated into the suspension in two diﬀerent ways. As we can see on the left of the same ﬁgure, the cartridge can be mounted on a non-suspended rigid axle through a king-pin; in this case the entire suspension is steering with the wheel and the steering mechanism is the same as for a rigid steering axle, making the motion of wheels completely independent.
4. The ﬁrst cars with an internal combustion engine, the tricycle of Benz and the Stahlradwagen of Daimler give no evidence of great attention to the suspension system. Both lack a front suspension and the second features no suspensions at all, with a suspended seat only. The ﬁrst cars with an internal combustion engine, the tricycle of Benz in 1886 and the Stahlradwagen (German word for ‘steel wheel car’) of Daimler in 1889 (see Fig. 4) give no evidence of great attention to the suspension system.
Automotive Computer Controlled Systems (Automobile Electronics Referex Engineering) by Allan W. M. Bonnick