By Guo-Wei He, D.A. Cooley
This authoritative and hugely illustrated advisor to arthoscopic and endoscopic surgical procedure describes and illustrates cutting-edge concepts and ways which are presently used for the therapy of painful backbone pathologies and the prevention of postsurgical failed again syndrome. The authors reveal step by step how minimally invasive thoughts are played in spinal surgical procedure and the way anatomical constructions showing via an endoscope will help within the analysis and popularity of varied anatomical buildings of the backbone. An accompanying DVD exhibits real surgeries played in the course of arthroscopic and endoscopic microdiscectomy and arthroscopic interbody fusion utilizing percutaneous pedicular fixators.
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Additional info for Arterial Grafting for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
These are endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) [3, 4], prostacyclin (PGI2) , and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) [5 – 8]. These relaxing factors induce vasodilatation through different mechanisms. PGI2 is the first defined relaxing factor derived from endothelium. When activated by stimuli, the enzyme phospholipase A2 in endothelial cells converts membrane phospholipids to arachidonic acid that subsequently metabolize to PGI2, thromboxane A2, and several other prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF2 [ , PGD2) through the action of cyclooxygenase (COX).
Most recently, corticortropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors CRF1, CRF2 [ , and CRF2 q have been shown to be present in the IMA . The CRF urocortin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the IMA is likely through CRF receptors allocated in the endothelium of the IMA . Usually, these receptors mediate relaxation through the endothelium-dependent mechanism. However, despite the fact that the receptors in the arterial grafts have been studied for years, more studies are warrant- ed to understand the differences between arterial grafts regarding these receptors.
Our recent studies have shown that arterial grafts release both NO and EDHF. In general, the amount and duration of the release of NO from the IMA is more than that from the saphenous vein  (Fig. 3) Further, we have demonstrated that among the arterial grafts, the release of NO and EDHF is different. The IMA releases more NO and EDHF than the RA does (Fig. 4) . 5 2 a 3 4 5 6 7 Time (Min) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Fig. 3. 0 log M)-induced nitric oxide release in internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 8) and saphenous vein (SV, n = 9).
Arterial Grafting for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery by Guo-Wei He, D.A. Cooley