Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy PDF

By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

ISBN-10: 1556524803

ISBN-13: 9781556524806

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unequalled within the annals of experience trip. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, usually within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. fantastic points of interest, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage during the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from worldwide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are specified. a last part describes Antarctica at the present time, detailing the natural world and geology of a area that's drawing increasingly more viewers who, just like the adventurers earlier than them, are interested by the isolation, good looks, and problem of the continent.

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Foul weather and high seas prevented Cook from landing until January 17. Early that morning Cook, the Forsters, and Sparrman were rowed to shore. “The head of the Bay, as well as two places on each side, was terminated by a huge Mass of Snow and ice of vast extent,” Cook wrote. “The inner part of the Country was not less savage and horrible: the Wild rocks raised their lofty summits till they were lost in the Clouds and the Valleys laid buried in everlasting Snow. ” Cook quickly displayed the flag and took possession of the land he named South Georgia.

After weeks of arduous sailing through a good chunk of Dalrymple’s theoretical continent, Cook reached 40° south latitude in September. Several weeks later he sighted the mountains of New Zealand. From October 1769 to April 1770 Cook surveyed nearly twenty-five hundred miles of New Zealand’s unknown coasts, circumnavigating both islands. At that point Cook could have returned to England, but he decided to sail west over the Tasman Sea to explore New Holland (Australia). The crossing was rough, with high winds and monstrous swells.

A final tally will never be known but at least eighty pounds of gold, twenty-six tons of silver, and chests loaded with gems and pieces of eight filled the Golden Hind’s hold when the ship lumbered into Plymouth on September 26, 1580. Queen Elizabeth and Drake’s other investors hailed him a hero. King Philip II of Spain demanded full retribution and Drake’s head. Queen Elizabeth promptly responded by knighting Drake in 1581. But glory and knighthood didn’t change Drake—he continued to plunder Spanish colonies and ships until tensions between England and Spain culminated with the sailing of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

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Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

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