By Jacky Turner
The decision of while, how, how frequently and with whom an animal breeds is relocating speedily clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those comprise the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for nutrients construction each year, the breeding of pedigree canine and cats, racing canine and horses, specialized laboratory animal traces and using reproductive technological know-how to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested through both pros or the general public. This publication discusses the equipment, the motivations and the implications of human intervention in animal breeding when it comes to animal future health, behaviour and healthiness. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place we've extra appreciate for animals as sentient beings and the place shall we loosen the reins of reproductive keep an eye on.
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Additional info for Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society
6 The ideal of genetic progress The concept of continuous improvement, based on continuous scientific discovery and technical innovation, is integral to modern science and therefore has become part of the scientific approach to animal breeding. The modification of farmed animal genetics is a never-ending enterprise, analogous to developments in the auto industry or the computer industry where continuous technical improvement and functionality are expected and needed to fuel the production cycle.
Forced moulting involves some shock treatment, such as ES_ABWS_4-5 12/5/10 12:02 Page 37 BREEDING FOR PRODUCTIVITY 37 the sudden reduction or complete removal of the hens’ feed (complete feed withdrawal would be illegal in Europe and from 2006 is no longer allowed by the US United Egg Producers welfare guidelines45). Selection of broiler chickens has focused on growth rate, percentage of breast meat and feed conversion efficiency. The speed of growth is critical to the economics of broiler production operations because it determines how many crops of broilers can be sold per year and the profit per bird is minimal.
Typically between six and eight batches of fast-growing broilers go through a broiler shed per year, grown from one day to slaughter weight, in a shed containing 10,000 to 20,000 chicks, sometimes more. 15 In 2007, a typical Ross 308 male chicken weighed 42g at hatching, when he was delivered to the broiler shed he would be reared in. 1kg. In the UK, he is typically slaughtered at this weight. 2kg. 1kg. 9 The parent chickens who produce the meat chicks for rearing are known as ‘broiler breeders’.
Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society by Jacky Turner