By Thomas M. Schmitt
Provides descriptions and useful examples of all strategies utilized to the research of surfactants from the characterization of industrial compounds to their decision in formulated items and their detection at hint degrees within the setting. Literature is reviewed via 1990, with app
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Procedure  Weigh out sufficient sample to give a 10-mL titration and dissolve in 50 mL water and 50 mL ethanol. 1 M HCl. 05 M Pb(NO3)2 solution, using platinum and saturated calomel electrodes to monitor the titration. Standardize with sodium sulfate. (b) Nonaqueous Potentiometric Titration of Sulfate By use of a nonleveling solvent, the neutralization of the relatively weakly acidic second proton of sulfuric acid can be differentiated from the neutralization of the strongly acidic first proton and the sulfonic acid.
Analytical methods are available for very thorough characterization of the impurities in the alkylbenzene raw material used to produce LAS. These include trace levels of tetralins and of di- and polyaromatic compounds. Analysis is via preparative HPLC separation into the major classes, followed by capillary GC/MS identification and quantification of individual components . This approach may also be applied to LAS, after desulfonation. Page 22 (a) Elemental Analysis Elemental analysis, for the atomic ratio of carbon and sulfur, will give the average chain length by simple calculation.
6% range. It may be necessary to modify the ratio of ethanol to water, depending on the particular surfactant analyzed. This procedure was optimized for analysis of a sulfosuccinate. For higher sensitivity, turbidity measurements may be made at a lower wavelength, down to about 400 nm. 3 Sodium Sulfite Some anionic surfactants are prepared using sulfite compounds. Such products are analyzed for residual sulfite ion. The standard method for sulfite determination is iodometric titration. Determination of sulfite in -olefinsulfonates presents special problems, covered in detail by Ferm and Griffin .
Analysis of surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt