By Mark Overton
This ebook is the 1st to be had survey of English agriculture among 1500 and 1850. Written in particular for college kids, it combines new fabric with an research of the present literature. It describes farming within the 16th century, analyzes the explanations for advancements in agricultural output and productiveness, and examines adjustments within the agrarian financial system and society. Professor Overton argues that the influence of those comparable adjustments in productiveness and social and financial constitution within the century after 1750 volume to an agricultural revolution.
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Extra resources for Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500-1850
Customary land often had servile status associated with it. This meant that tenants, and their heirs, were liable for personal obligations to the manorial lord. A fine could be demanded when a tenancy was inherited (an entry fine), or sold to another farmer, when the tenant died (a heriot) or even when the lord's daughter married (a merchet). 3 Tenures sixteenth century most of these regular services and incidents of tenure had ceased to exist in their original form and virtually all direct labour and many payments in kind had been changed, or 'commuted' to a money payment.
Organic nitrogen is recycled more rapidly through animals and so one of the most important sources of mineral nitrogen was animal manure, but it is important to realise that animals do not make manure out of nothing, they are merely processing the nutrients contained in the plants they eat. Maintaining soil fertility involved two processes: first, conserving existing supplies of nitrogen, and second, facilitating the addition of new supplies of nitrogen into the farming system. Early modern farmers were, of course, ignorant of the existence of nitrogen, but they were nevertheless aware of strategies to maintain fertility which, although they did not realise it, involved the conservation of nitrogen.
Manorial regulation 14. 1 The settlement geography of England and Wales. Source: Thorpe (1964), 361-2. regular layout, common rotations, and full rights of common grazing over the fallow strips. A variant of this system is irregular commonfield systems with fully regulated cropping, where holdings are composed of a combination of strips and small closes; a type that has been identified in woodland areas of the Midlands. 2(b) for example) and fallow strips subject to common grazing. However, unlike the two previous types, crop rotations are flexible and adaptable across the system.
Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500-1850 by Mark Overton