By Angelo Rasanayagam
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Extra resources for Afghanistan: A Modern History
Afghan demands for a plebiscite could certainly not have encompassed Afghan Pashtuns who were the very basis of the Afghan state. Any expectations that Daoud may have had, that Pakistani Pashtuns would choose to be attached to Afghanistan in a plebiscite, were purely illusory. For instance, two public schools on the British model, Edwardes College and Ismailia College in Peshawar, had for several generations catered to the educational needs of the sons of tribal leaders, landowners and other Pashtuns of standing.
These are examples of the small but highly visible projects that appeared as spontaneous and generous responses to meet real Afghan needs, but had in fact great psychological a i d propaganda value for the Soviets. US economic assistance, when it began in 1956 in response to the Soviet economic offensive, provided essential but nearly invisible items and services: wheat, stored in the Soviet-built silos, a i d substantial investments in educational programmes, such as grants to Afghan students to study at American universities, and projects to expand and upgrade the local educational infrastructure and services.
In September 1960 a local quarrel between rival tribal chiefs in the Pakistani frontier district of Bajaur erupted into a war, with the two governments taking sides. Pakistan used US-supplied military aircraft and weapons against armed irtcursions of tribal elements from the Afghan side, and US protests were haughtily ignored by the Pakistani president, Ayub Khan. In the course of the mutual recriminations that followed, Pakistan closed its consulates in Kandahar and Jalalabad, and demanded that the Afghans close theirs in Quetta and Peshawar.
Afghanistan: A Modern History by Angelo Rasanayagam