By Zoe A. Shabarova, Alexey A. Bogdanov
Sequencing, cloning, transcription - those are yet a number of key strategies at the back of the present breathtaking advances in molecular biology and biochemistry. As those equipment continuosly diversify, biochemists desire a sound chemical knowing to maintain the speed. Chemists starting operating within the molecular biology lab desire an advent to this box from their viewpoint. This booklet serves either: it describes lots of the identified chemical reactions of nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids in adequate element to supply the specified historical past, and also, the basic family among series, constitution and performance of nucleic acids are presented.The first variation of this booklet, which used to be released in Russian, has instantly develop into a famous ordinary reference. This moment, completely revised and up-to-date variation, now released in English, is probably going to accomplish the same place within the overseas medical neighborhood.
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For example: R R K-rihuse residue As a result of incorporation of thio groups into ribo- and deoxyribopyrimidine nucleosides, reactive intermediates are formed, from which both major natural nucleosides and their various analogues can be obtained. ' O K -r i b o s e - NH2X0 N Y c H 3 hI R uiiil A N RI d e o x y r i b o s e resitluc. X= l i , l ) i i , N ti2 These and similar reactions of nucleophilic substitution have become quite popular in the modification of pyrimidine and purine bases which are subsequently subjected to ribosylation as part of synthesis of natural nucleosides and their analogues with 2-, 4-and 6-substituents.
In the case of uridine, for instance, N3-methyluridine and other methylated uracils were used for comparison. At neutral pH values, uracil in uridine may exist in the following three forms: The IR spectra of uridine and N3-methyluridine incapable of enolyzation turned out to be virtually identical, thereby suggesting that uridine in aqueous solutions exists in a diketo form. This conclusion was also confirmed by the difference between the IR spectra of uridine and its 4-ethoxy derivative which seemed to possess one of the enolic forms.
Attempts to make adenosine enter into this reaction are successful only under vigorous conditions. 1 Heterocyclic Bases 47 The reactions of amino group substitution in nucleosides, especially in the case of cytosine derivatives, are widely used in nucleic acid chemistry as a means for controlled modification of bases. Nucleophilic substitution reactions also find use in synthetic chemistry of nucleosides. , in uracil derivatives) also belongs to nucleophilic substitution reactions. For example: R R K-rihuse residue As a result of incorporation of thio groups into ribo- and deoxyribopyrimidine nucleosides, reactive intermediates are formed, from which both major natural nucleosides and their various analogues can be obtained.
Advanced Organic Chemistry of Nucleic Acids by Zoe A. Shabarova, Alexey A. Bogdanov